Thursday, June 30, 2016

Red Spectral Skywaker/ Red Lunar Serpent - Cosmic Turtle Moon of Presence, Day 4

 Vintage Lee Yazzie Navajo turquoise and coral belt buckle.

Navajo artist, Lee Yazzie, is one of the leading Native American designers and craftsmen in the field today. Both of Lee’s parents were traditional Navajo silversmiths and he grew up observing their style and designs. Over twenty years ago, Lee Yazzie made the decision to pursue quality over quality and therefore produces less than 10 individual pieces each year. He draws on traditional Navajo elements and with contemporary flair combines 14K gold and sterling silver, set with turquoise, coral, lapis, and other gemstones as he designs each unique piece. His pieces have been elected to remain in the permanent collection of the Indian Arts and Crafts Board, part of the U.S. Department of Interior and he has garnered various awards including the coveted “Best of Show” various times at the Annual Intertribal Ceremonial in Gallup, New Mexico. Numerous issues of Arizona Highways have featured Lee’s work and he has been included in several authoritative books on Native American jewelry including Beyond Traditions by Jerry and Lois Jacka, Enduring Traditions by Jerry and Lois Jacka, Navajo Indian Jewelry by Jerry and Lois Jacka, North American Indian Jewelry and Adornment by Lois Dubin, and Southwestern Indian Jewelry.


Kin 193: Red Spectral Skywalker

I dissolve in order to explore
Releasing wakefulness
I seal the output of space
With the spectral tone of liberation
I am guided by my own power doubled.

Synchronicity is the operation of a higher moving template of mathematical order that coordinates all phenomena telepathically.*

*Star Traveler's 13 Moon Almanac of Synchronicity, Galactic Research Institute, Law of Time Press, Ashland, Oregon, 2015-2016.

The Sacred Tzolk'in 

Svadhistana Chakra (Kali Plasma)

Wednesday, June 29, 2016

Yellow Planetary Human/ Yellow Magnetic Seed - Cosmic Turtle Moon of Presence, Day 3

Vintage Hopi Louis Lomay Sterling Turquoise Coral Ring.

Lewis Lomay was born in 1913 on the Hopi Reservation and began his fine arts career during the 30's in Albuquerque, NM. He studied painting at the Indian School under Florence Prentiss. His skill and love of painting brought him to Santa Fe where he began to innovate the traditional "flat" style. These innovations did not suit his teachers, so from there he moved on to making jewelry. 

From this point on in his career, Lomay became one of the best jewelers of his time. He worked and studied with Frank Patania in Santa Fe. He worked in both silver and gold, letting his influences range from traditional to European. His work became known for its innovation, and he is noted for being a designer ahead of his time.


Kin 192: Yellow Planetary Human

I perfect in order to influence
Producing wisdom
I seal the process of free will
With the planetary tone of manifestation
I am guided by the power of universal power
I am a galactic activation portal
Enter me.

Just as matter reaches a certain point within the binary unfolding, becoming a crystal, so life reaches a critical point with the emergence of mind as a medium of evolving intelligence.*

*Star Traveler's 13 Moon Almanac of Synchronicity, Galactic Research Institute, Law of Time Press, Ashland, Oregon, 2015-2016.

The Sacred Tzolk'in 

Ajna Chakra (Gamma Plasma)

Tuesday, June 28, 2016

Blue Solar Monkey/ Blue Cosmic Night - Cosmic Turtle Moon of Presence, Day 2

Slender Maker of Silver fashioned this squash blossom necklace for Navajo leader Chee Dodge.

Atsidi Sani (Navajo: Atsidii Sání) (ca. 1830 – ca. 1918) was the first known Navajo silversmith.

Atsidi Sani played an important role in the history of Navajo silversmithing. He is known by many to be the first Navajo silversmith, although his main focus was in blacksmithing; working with iron. Many agree that he learned blacksmithing in the year 1853. However, Grey Moustache, who was a student and the great-nephew of Sani, explained that, “Atsidi Sani learned this art twenty years before he first worked silver, which was not until after his return from Fort Sumner. That could not have been before 1868, and was possibly several years after that date. Therefore, he must have learned blacksmithing about 1850”.

Little is known of Atsidi Sani. However, it is known that he was born near Wheatfields, Arizona, circa 1830. He was known by many names, but to his people, he was known as Atsidi Sani, which translates to "Old Smith," and to the Mexicans he was known as Herrero, which means "Iron Worker." Some of his other names included, Delgadito (Little Thin), Herrero Delgado (Thin Smith), and Beshiltheeni (Metal Worker, Knife Maker). In addition, aside from being a silversmith and a blacksmith, he was also a Medicine Man, Spiritual Leader, Ceremonial Singer, and a Navajo Chief.

According to Navajo tribal leader, Chee Dodge, Sani must have learned to work iron around the age of 25. Dodge knew Sani personally. In fact, he used to assist Sani in walking, as Sani became blind in his older years. Furthermore, Atsidi Sani learned his blacksmith skills from a Mexican man by the name of Nakai Tsosi, whose name means Thin Mexican. Sani decided that he wanted to learn to make bridles so that he could sell them to his people, who otherwise bought their bridles from the Mexicans. He became good friends with Tsosi and eventually learned to work iron by watching him work.

Between the years 1850 and 1865, Atsidi Sani was the "most important iron smith." His iron work seems to have consisted mostly of bridles. Grey Moustache recalls "watching Atsidi Sani make bridle bits out of pieces of scrap iron. He made them with jingles hanging from the bottom." In addition, as a silversmith, he was just as equally important. “Both traditional and documentary evidence point to the 'old smith' as being the 'daddy of silversmiths.'" Some of his early silver work consisted of conchas, bracelets, and a variety of other jewelry pieces.

Once Sani became skilled enough in working silver, he passed on his knowledge of silversmithing to his four sons, Big Black, Red Smith, Little Smith, and Burnt Whiskers. In 1890, Atsidi Sani "became a paid teacher." One of his more important students was his younger brother, Slender Maker of Silver, who was one of the best silversmiths of his time, according to Chee Dodge. Interestingly, Slender Maker of Silver also learned some of his skills from a man by the name of Atsidi Chon (Ugly Smith), who was a brother-in-law to Grey Moustache.

It seems as though Atsidi Sani lived a long life. Chee Dodge spoke of how Sani, used to live near Washington Pass, which was not far from where Dodge lived. He used to go to Dodge just to visit. According to Chee Dodge, Sani died around the year 1918 and "must have been over 90 years old" at the time of his death.*



Kin 191: Blue Solar Monkey

I pulse in order to play
Realizing illusion
I seal the process of magic
With the solar tone of intention
I am guided by the power of accomplishment.

The purpose of higher intelligence is to see to it that the Velatrope system becomes stabilized at a higher frequency.*

*Star Traveler's 13 Moon Almanac of Synchronicity, Galactic Research Institute, Law of Time Press, Ashland, Oregon, 2015-2016.

The Sacred Tzolk'in 

Muladhara Chakra (Seli Plasma)

Monday, June 27, 2016

White Galactic Dog/ White Crystal Wind - Cosmic Turtle Moon of Presence, Day 1

Cuff | Mike Bird Romero. Sterling silver, Turquoise and Spondylus.

Mike Bird-Romero is an accomplished jeweler known for his technical mastery, innovation, and respect for historical techniques and designs. Born in 1946 in San Juan Pueblo, his artistic interests were fostered in a household of creativity. His grandmother Luteria Atencio was a respected potter whose works are in the Smithsonian Institution. His mother Lorencita Bird was an accomplished and well-known Pueblo textile artist and educator. After learning some basic metal-working skills in junior high school, Mike began serious work with metals in the late 1960s, teaching himself from books on the topic and buying some old tools while making others. By the 1980s, Mike had emerged as a major figure in contemporary Native American jewelry making. Selecting only the best, most dramatic materials, Mike became known for bold, sculptural interpretations of traditional designs. 

Although he is largely a self-taught artist, Mike's work has been influenced both by extensive research into historic Navajo and Pueblo jewelry and by observing great silversmiths who lived near his home including Mark Chee and Julian Lovato. A true student of Pueblo tradition, Mike is inspired by old photographs of Indians wearing historical jewelry. “I am trying to revive the old jewelry,” he explains.


Kin 190: White Galactic Dog

I harmonize in order to love
Modeling loyalty
I seal the process of heart
With the galactic tone of integrity
I am guided by the power of timelessness.

To be the cosmic person is to dwell in and be informed by the Absolute in all matters.*

*Star Traveler's 13 Moon Almanac of Synchronicity, Galactic Research Institute, Law of Time Press, Ashland, Oregon, 2015-2016.

The Sacred Tzolk'in

Sahasrara Chakra (Dali Plasma)

Sunday, June 26, 2016

Red Resonant Moon/ Red Spectral Dragon - Crystal Rabbit Moon of Cooperation, Day 28

Fine Art Jewelry by Denise Wallace.

Denise Hottinger was born in Seattle, Washington in 1957. She attended the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, NM in the late 1970s. Denise along with her late husband, Samuel Wallace produced jewelry that is inspired by her Alaskan Native heritage. The couple had a studio/gallery in Santa Fe, NM for over 20 years and moved to the island of Hawaii in 1999. Their work has been the individual focus of many exhibitions, including the traveling exhibition, Arctic Transformations: The Jewelry of Denise and Samuel Wallace organized by the Anchorage Museum of History and Art in Anchorage, AK. Among the public collections that include their work: Anchorage Museum of History and Art,; Institute of American Indian Arts, SF, NM; Museum of Arts and Design, NYC; Mingei International Museum, San Diego, CA.

Technically astounding, aesthetically beautiful and culturally important. These are just some of the ways in which Denise Wallace’s jewelry can be described. Inspired by the stories of her Chugach Aleut ancestors, her unique creations have made her the best-known Alaska Native jeweler of our time.

Wallace began her artistic journey as a student at the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico in the late 70s. After graduating, she and her husband Samuel remained in Santa Fe creating and selling work from their studio and gallery for 20 years. In 1999, the Wallaces moved from the high desert to the tropics of Hawaii where they continued to collaborate on pieces. In 2010, Denise’s beloved Samuel passed away, but his influence on the couple’s work will forever be felt.

Beyond the indelible imprint that could only be made by the decades long partnership with Samuel, Wallace credits Native American artists such as Allan Houser, John Hoover, Charles Loloma, Roxanne Swentzell and many more as being influential to her work, as well. However, the content of her pieces remain firmly planted in the rich stories and customs of the Native people of arctic Alaska, stories that deal with themes of healing, growth, nature and transformation. “The transformation aspect is what inspired the doors and hinges on my work, Wallace says.

In addition to complex mechanical components like the tiny, working lockets that open to reveal hidden subject matter, Wallace utilizes materials like silver, gold, semiprecious stones and scrimshawed, fossilized ivory to join old traditions and stories with her newly envisioned interpretations. Figures and faces dance and come alive in dazzling belts, earrings, pendants and more.

Her work has been featured in the major traveling exhibition, Arctic Transformations: The Jewelry of Denise and Samuel Wallace organized by the Anchorage Museum of History and Art in Anchorage, Alaska; Craft in America 3, a PBS series, nationally touring exhibition and publication; Gifts of the Spirit: Works by Nineteenth Century and Contemporary Native American Artists, organized by the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts and more. Wallace’s work is also housed in the permanent collections of the Anchorage Museum of History and Art in Anchorage, Alaska; the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico; the Museum of Arts and Design in New York, New York and the Mingei International Museum in San Diego, California.

Wallace says, “I hope to create pieces that speak to people… pieces that have a life of their own and become part of the world. I have always wanted the pieces to tell a story about our land, our people and some small song or story about the world we live in.”

With an international following and resume bursting with international exhibits and exchanges, Wallace continues to both honor and celebrate the people and places of her homelands by sharing their stories, through jewelry, around the world.

By Staci Golar


Kin 189: Red Resonant Moon

I channel in order to purify
Inspiring flow
I seal the process of universal water
With the resonant tone of attunement
I am guided by the power of birth
I am a galactic activation portal
Enter me.

When you finally realize that your mind is always living and moving through the noosphere, you will be surprised at how few varieties of thought forms are actually called forth each day.*

*Star Traveler's 13 Moon Almanac of Synchronicity, Galactic Research Institute, Law of Time Press, Ashland, Oregon, 2015-2016.

The Sacred Tzolk'in 

Anahata Chakra (Silio Plasma)

Saturday, June 25, 2016

Yellow Rhythmic Star/ Yellow Planetary Sun - Crystal Rabbit Moon of Cooperation, Day 27

Image result for mangas coloradas
Mangas Coloradas, Apache Chief.

Mangas Coloradas (La-choy Ko-kun-noste, alias "Red Sleeve"), or Dasoda-hae ("He Just Sits There") (c. 1793 – January 18, 1863) was an Apache tribal chief and a member of the Mimbreño (Tchihende) division of the Central Apaches, whose homeland stretched west from the Rio Grande to include most of what is present-day southwestern New Mexico. He was the father-in-law of the Chiricahua (Tsokanende) Chief Cochise, the Mimbreño Chief Victorio and the Mescalero (Sehende) Chief Kutbhalla (probably to be identified with Caballero), and is regarded by many historians to be one of the most important Native American leaders of the 19th century due to his fighting achievements against the Mexicans and Americans.

The name Mangas Coloradas is the reception of his Apache nickname Kan-da-zis Tlishishen ("Red Shirt" or "Pink Shirt") by the Mexicans and is Spanish for Red Sleeves. A Bedonkohe (Bi-dan-ku – 'In Front of the End People', Bi-da-a-naka-enda – 'Standing in front of the enemy') by birth he married into the Copper Mines local group of the Chihenne and became the principal chief of the whole Chihenne Apache division, including the neighboring Mimbreño local group of the Warm Springs Chihenne, directly led by the famous chief Cuchillo Negro (in Apache language Baishan), second chief of the whole Chihenne Apache division.

During the decades of the 1820s and 1830s, the Apaches' main enemy were the Mexicans, who had won their independence from Spain in 1821. By 1835, Mexico had placed a bounty on Apache scalps. After Juan José Compa, the leader of the Coppermine Mimbreño Apaches, was killed for bounty money in 1837 in the massacre at Santa Rita del Cobre, Mangas became a war leader and a chief, and began a series of retaliatory raids against the Mexicans, killing and destroying all around the mining town and placing Santa Rita under siege, finally attacking the column of fleeing Mexicans and slaughtering a large number.

Mangas Coloradas became the principal leader of the Coppermine Mimbreños, and led them for about 25 years, while his friend and long-time companion Cuchillo Negro led the Warm Springs Mimbreños.

In 1846, when the United States went to war with Mexico, the Apache Nation promised U.S. soldiers safe passage through Apache lands. Once the U.S. occupied New Mexico in 1846, Mangas Coloradas signed a peace treaty, respecting them as conquerors of the hated Mexican enemy. An uneasy peace between the Apache and the United States lasted until an influx of gold miners into New Mexico's Pinos Altos Mountains led to open conflict.

According to John C. Cremony's book, Life Among the Apaches, in 1851, near Pinos Altos mining camp, Mangas was attacked by a group of White miners who tied him to a tree and severely flogged him. Yet historian Edwin R. Sweeney finds issue with this claim in his biography of the chief: if it was true, Geronimo, who spent a great deal of time with Mangas during the 1850s and 1860s, would have mentioned that to his biographer as a reason for the war, yet he did not.

In December 1860, 30 miners launched a surprise attack on an encampment of Bedonkohes on the west bank of the Mimbres River. Historian Edwin R. Sweeney reported, the miners "... killed four Indians, wounded others, and captured thirteen women and children." Shortly after that, Mangas began raids against U.S. citizens and their property.

Mangas Coloradas' daughter Dos-Teh-Seh married Cochise, principal chief of the Chokonen Apache. In early February 1861, US Army Lieutenant George N. Bascom, investigating the "Indian" kidnapping of a rancher's son, apparently without orders, lured an innocent Cochise, his family and several warriors into a trap at Apache Pass, southeastern Arizona. Cochise managed to escape, but his family and warriors remained in custody. Negotiations were unsuccessful and fighting erupted.

This incident, known as the "Bascom Affair", ended with Cochise’s brother and five other warriors being hanged by Bascom. Later that year, Mangas and Cochise struck an alliance, agreeing to drive all Americans out of Apache territory. They were joined in their effort by Victorio, Juh and Geronimo. Although the goal was never achieved, the White population in Apache territory was greatly reduced for a few years during the Civil War, after federal troops had been withdrawn to the east.

In the summer of 1862, after recovering from a bullet wound in the chest, Mangas Coloradas met with an intermediary to call for peace. In January 1863, he decided to meet with U.S. military leaders at Fort McLane, in southwestern New Mexico. Mangas arrived under a flag of truce to meet with Brigadier General Joseph Rodman West, an officer of the California militia and a future Reconstruction senator from Louisiana. Armed soldiers took Mangas into custody. West gave an execution order to the sentries.

Men, that old murderer has got away from every soldier command and has left a trail of blood for 500 miles on the old stage line. I want him dead tomorrow morning. Do you understand? I want him dead.

That night, Mangas was tortured, shot and killed "escaping". While tied on the ground, Mangas was provoked with red hot bayonets until he moved to simulate his attempt to escape.

The following day, U.S. soldiers, fascinated by the size of the Apache (Mangas was 6 feet, 6 inches tall), cut off his head, boiled it and sent the skull to Orson Squire Fowler, a phrenologist in New York City. Phrenological analysis of the skull and two sketches of it appear in Fowler's book. Daklugie, one of informants in Eve Ball's book, said the skull went to the Smithsonian Institution.

However, the Smithsonian has done a thorough search for the skull, and reports that it never received it. Mangas' descendants and sources based on their testimony may have confused the Smithsonian with Fowler's Phrenological Cabinet in New York, where the skull was on display, leading to the misattribution. Another possible fate of the skull was that it was returned to the Apaches by the Smithsonian in a 1990 transfer, but was not individually labeled.

The murder and mutilation of Mangas' body only increased the hostility between Apaches and the United States, with more or less constant war continuing for nearly another 25 years.


Kin 188: Yellow Rhythmic Star

I organize in order to beautify
Balancing art
I seal the store of elegance
With the rhythmic tone of equality
I am guided by my own power doubled.

Once you learn to control your thoughts, it is important to understand what is involved in the construction of the images of the world. Different senses create mental imagery.*

*Star Traveler's 13 Moon Almanac of Synchronicity, Galactic Research Institute, Law of Time Press, Ashland, Oregon, 2015-2016.

The Sacred Tzolk'in 

Manipura Chakra  (Limi Plasma)

Friday, June 24, 2016

Blue Overtone Hand/ Blue Solar Storm - Crystal Rabbit Moon of Cooperation, Day 26

Chief Dragging Canoe.

Dragging Canoe (ᏥᏳ ᎦᏅᏏᏂ, pronounced Tsiyu Gansini, "he is dragging his canoe") (c.1738–February 29, 1792) was a Cherokee war chief who led a band of disaffected Cherokee against colonists and United States settlers in the Upper South.

During the American Revolution and afterward, Dragging Canoe's forces were sometimes joined by Upper Muskogee, Chickasaw, Shawnee, and Indians from other tribes/nations, along with British Loyalists, and agents of France and Spain. The series of conflicts lasted a decade after the American Revolutionary War. Dragging Canoe became the preeminent war leader among the Indians of the southeast of his time. He served as war chief of the Chickamauga Cherokee (or "Lower Cherokee") from 1777 until his death in 1792, when he was succeeded by John Watts.

He was the son of Attakullakulla ("Little Carpenter"), who was born to the Nipissing. He and his mother were captured when he was an infant, and they were adopted into the Cherokee tribe and assimilated. His mother was Nionne Ollie ("Tamed Doe), born to the Natchez and adopted as a captive by Oconostota's household.

They lived with the Overhill Cherokee on the Little Tennessee River. Dragging Canoe survived smallpox at a young age, which left his face marked. According to Cherokee legend, his name is derived from an incident in his early childhood. Wanting to join a war party moving against a neighboring tribe, the Shawnee, his father told him he could stay with the war party as long as he could carry his canoe. He tried to prove his readiness for war by carrying the heavy canoe, but he could only manage to drag it.

Dragging Canoe first took part in battle during the Anglo-Cherokee War (1759–1761). In its aftermath, he was recognized as one of the strongest opponents to encroachment by settlers from the British colonies onto Cherokee land. Eventually, he became the headman of Mialoquo ("Great Island Town," or "Amoyeli Egwa" in Cherokee) on the Little Tennessee River.

When the Cherokee chose to ally with the British in the American Revolution, Dragging Canoe was at the head of one of the major attacks. After the colonial militias' counter attack, which destroyed the Cherokee Middle, Valley, and Lower Towns, his father and Oconostota wanted to sue for peace. Refusing to admit defeat, in 1777 Dragging Canoe led a band of the Overhill Cherokee out of the towns, further south. They migrated to the area seven miles upstream from where the South Chickamauga Creek joins the Tennessee River, in the vicinity of present-day Chattanooga. Thereafter, frontiersman called them the "Chickamauga" because of their settlement by the creek. They established 11 towns, including the one later referred to as "Old Chickamauga Town." This was across the river from where the Scotsman, John McDonald, the assistant superintendent of the British concerns in the area, had a trading post. He supplied the Chickamauga with guns, ammo, and supplies with which to fight.

In 1782, for the second time, their towns were attacked by United States forces. The devastation caused by Colonel John Sevier's troop forced the band to once again move further down the Tennessee River. Dragging Canoe then established the "Five Lower Towns" below the natural obstructions of the Tennessee River Gorge. These were: Running Water Town (now Whiteside), Nickajack Town (near the cave of the same name), Long Island (on the Tennessee River), Crow Town (at the mouth of Crow Creek), and Lookout Mountain Town (at the current site of Trenton, Georgia). Following this move, they were alternately referred to as the "Lower Cherokee."

From his base at Running Water Town, Dragging Canoe led attacks on white settlements all over the American Southeast, especially against the colonists on the Holston, Watauga, and Nolichucky rivers in eastern Tennessee. After 1780, he also attacked settlements in the Cumberland River area, the Washington District, the Republic of Franklin, the Middle Tennessee areas, and raided into Kentucky and Virginia as well. His three brothers, Little Owl, the Badger, and Turtle-at-Home, often fought with his forces.

Dragging Canoe is considered by many to be the most significant Native American leader of the Southeast. Historians such as John P. Brown in Old Frontiers, and James Mooney in his early ethnographic book, Myths of the Cherokee, consider him a role model for the younger Tecumseh, who was a member of a band of Shawnee living with the Chickamauga and taking part in their wars. In Tell Them They Lie, a book written by a direct descendant of Sequoyah named Traveler Bird, both Tecumseh and Sequoyah are stated to have been among his young warriors.


Kin 187: Blue Overtone Hand

I empower in order to know
Commanding healing
I seal the store of accomplishment
With the overtone tone of radiance
I am guided by the power of vision.

The Noogenesis, the Great Cosmic Shift, will be realized in a short time, and is dependent on the personal discovery of those capable of becoming cosmically aligned.*

*Star Traveler's 13 Moon Almanac of Synchronicity, Galactic Research Institute, Law of Time Press, Ashland, Oregon, 2015-2016.

The Sacred Tzolk'in 

Visshudha Chakra (Alpha Chakra)

Thursday, June 23, 2016

White Self-Existing World-Bridger/ White Galactic Mirror - Crystal Rabbit Moon of Cooperation, Day 25i

Portrait of Osceola, by George Catlin.

Osceola (1804 – January 30, 1838), born as Billy Powell, became an influential leader of the Seminole in Florida. Of mixed parentage, Creek, Scots-Irish, and English, he was raised as a Creek by his mother, as the tribe had a matrilineal kinship system. They migrated to Florida when he was a child, with other Red Stick refugees, after their defeat in 1814 in the Creek Wars.

In 1836, Osceola led a small band of warriors in the Seminole resistance during the Second Seminole War, when the United States tried to remove the tribe from their lands in Florida. He became an adviser to Micanopy, the principal chief of the Seminole from 1825 to 1849. Osceola led the war resistance until he was captured in September 1837 by deception, under a flag of truce, when he went to a US fort for peace talks. Because of his renown, Osceola attracted visitors as well as leading portrait painters. He died a few months later in prison at Fort Moultrie in Charleston, South Carolina, of causes reported as an internal infection or malaria.

Osceola was named Billy Powell at birth in 1804 in the Creek village of Talisi. now known as Tallassee, Alabama, in current Elmore County. "The people in the town of Tallassee...were mixed-blood Native American/English/Irish/Scottish, and some were black. Billy was all of these." His mother was Polly Coppinger, a Creek woman, and his father was William Powell, an English trader. Polly was the daughter of Ann McQueen and Jose Coppinger. Because the Creek have a matrilineal kinship system, Polly and Ann's other children were all considered to be born into their mother's clan; they were reared as traditional Creek and gained their status from their mother's people. Ann McQueen was also mixed-race Creek; her father, James McQueen, was Scots-Irish. Ann was probably the sister or aunt of Peter McQueen, a prominent Creek leader and warrior. Like his mother, Billy was raised in the Creek tribe.

Like his father, Billy's maternal grandfather James McQueen was also a trader; in 1714 he was the first European to trade with the Creek in Alabama. He stayed in the area as a fur trader and married into the Creek tribe and became closely involved with this people. He is buried in the Indian cemetery in Franklin, Alabama, near a Methodist Missionary Church for the Creek.

In 1814, after the Red Stick Creek were defeated by United States forces, Polly took Osceola and moved with other Creek refugees from Alabama to Florida, where they joined the Seminole. In adulthood, as part of the Seminole, Powell was given his name Osceola (/ˌɒsiːˈoʊlə/ or /ˌoʊseɪˈoʊlə/). This is an anglicized form of the Creek Asi-yahola (pronounced [asːi jahoːla]); the combination of asi, the ceremonial black drink made from the yaupon holly, and yahola, meaning "shout" or "shouter".

In 1821, the United States acquired Florida from Spain. More European-American settlers started moving in, encroaching on the Seminole. After early military skirmishes and the 1823 Treaty of Moultrie Creek, by which the US seized the northern Seminole lands, Osceola and his family moved with the Seminole deeper into central and southern Florida.

As an adult, Osceola took two wives, as did some other Creek and Seminole leaders. With them, he had at least five children. One of his wives was an African American, and he fiercely opposed the enslavement of free people.

Through the 1820s and the turn of the decade, American settlers kept up pressure on the US government to remove the Seminole from Florida to make way for their desired agricultural development. In 1832, a few Seminole chiefs signed the Treaty of Payne's Landing, by which they agreed to give up their Florida lands in exchange for lands west of the Mississippi River in Indian Territory. According to legend, Osceola stabbed the treaty with his knife, although there are no contemporary reports of this.

Five of the most important Seminole chiefs, including Micanopy of the Alachua Seminole, did not agree to removal. In retaliation, the US Indian agent, Wiley Thompson, declared that those chiefs were deposed from their positions. As US relations with the Seminole deteriorated, Thompson forbade the sale of guns and ammunition to them. Osceola, a young warrior rising to prominence, resented this ban. He felt it equated the Seminole with slaves, who were forbidden to carry arms.

Thompson considered Osceola to be a friend and gave him a rifle. Later, though, when Osceola quarreled with Thompson, the agent had the warrior locked up at Fort King for a night. The next day, to secure his release, Osceola agreed to abide by the Treaty of Payne's Landing and to bring his followers into the fort.

On December 28, 1835, Osceola and his followers ambushed and killed Wiley Thompson and six others outside Fort King, while another group of Seminole ambushed and killed a column of US Army troops marching from Fort Brooke to Fort King, in what Americans called the Dade Massacre. These nearly simultaneous attacks began the Second Seminole War.

In October 1837, on the orders of General Thomas Jesup, Osceola was captured when he went for peace talks near St. Augustine, Florida. He was initially imprisoned at Fort Marion before being transferred to Fort Moultrie on Sullivans Island, outside Charleston, South Carolina. Osceola's capture by deceit caused a national uproar. General Jesup and the administration were condemned by many congressional leaders. That December, Osceola and other Seminole prisoners were moved to Fort Moultrie, Charleston, South Carolina. They were visited by townspeople.

George Catlin and other prominent painters met the war chief and persuaded him to allow his picture to be painted. Robert J. Curtis painted an oil portrait of Osceola as well. These paintings have inspired numerous prints and engravings, which were widely distributed, and even cigar store figures.

Osceola died of quinsy (though one source gives the cause of death as "malaria" without further elaboration) on January 30, 1838, three months after his capture. He was buried with military honors at Fort Moultrie.


Kin 186: White Self-Existing World-Bridger

I define in order to equalize
Measuring opportunity
I seal the store of death
With the self-existing tone of form
I am guided by the power of spirit.

The solar system is a galactic thought molecule, and the planets are its electronic thought units.*

*Star Traveler's 13 Moon Almanac of Synchronicity, Galactic Research Institute, Law of Time Press, Ashland, Oregon, 2015-2016.

The Sacred Tzolk'in 

Svadhistanha Chakra (Kali Plasma)