Saturday, February 17, 2018
White Planetary Dog
“Poetry is made in bed, like love
The unmade sheets are the dawn of things”*
Wed in the bodies of women
Are Space and Time –
Time by numinous blood is marked or held –
Making space for Life to grow
In Form – Form born of sacred Grace
From the grand Void
Churning and Yearning for a new thing –
A cosmic Magnet irresistible
Spins Movement and Measure together –
Music pours from the galactic Center
Weaving a Dance so entrancing that
The Masculine cannot help but rise and enter.
*Taken from a poem by André Breton
Anfesia Shapsnikoff (October 1, 1901 – January 15, 1973) was an Aleut leader and educator born October 1, 1901, at Atka, Alaska in the Aleutian Islands. Renowned for her weaving of Aleut grass baskets, Anfesia flew to many communities throughout Alaska to teach children the lost art of Attu basket weaving.
The Twenty-First Legislature of the Alaska State Legislature recognized Anfesia on March 7, 2000, as an "Aleut Tradition Bearer" who "...served as nurse, church reader, teacher and community leader nearly all her life...Who contributed history and well being for all Alaskans".
Anfesia served as a powerful role model within the Aleut communities where she taught and became involved in matters of importance to the people. "Anfesia's influence in the Aleut community endures.... Her passion for Aleut culture has infused various Aleut organizations, and her willingness to serve on civic boards has inspired others to follow her example".
Even though Anfesia was physically small, she could be "...extremely fierce at times if she found something that she was unhappy with. And she was often unhappy with the written accounts of Aleut history".*
Kin 10: White Planetary Dog
I perfect in order to love
I seal the process of heart
With the planetary tone of manifestation
I am guided by the power of endlessness
I am a polar kin
I extend the white galactic spectrum.
Obstructions are self-created impediments of the mind; if it appears that something is stopping you, step back and shift focus.*
*Star Traveler's 13 Moon Almanac of Synchronicity, Galactic Research Institute, Law of Time Press, Ashland, Oregon, 2017-2018.
The Sacred Tzolk'in
Ajna Chakra (Gamma Plasma)
Friday, February 16, 2018
Red Solar Moon
‘Tis the Sunset we see -
The final lurid Flourish
Of a Patriarchal Symphony
Which - like a long Wave
Rose five thousand
Years ago –
This Wave now
Crests - soaring
With tsunamic Force -
Its own Demise -
Blood flows in places
It must never be -
Gone its sacred Power
Gone its numinous Sway
We kill the Children –
Thus ourselves we slay.*
*This poem is an elegy dedicated to all the children slain and families decimated, traumatized and in pain from the horrific gun violence loosed upon the land.
Leslie Marmon Silko
Leslie Marmon Silko (born Leslie Marmon; born March 5, 1948) is a Laguna Pueblo writer and one of the key figures in the First Wave of what literary critic Kenneth Lincoln has called the Native American Renaissance.
Silko was a debut recipient of the MacArthur Foundation Grant in 1981 and the Native Writers' Circle of the Americas Lifetime Achievement Award in 1994. She currently resides in Tucson, Arizona.
Leslie Marmon Silko was born in Albuquerque, New Mexico to Leland Howard Marmon, a noted photographer, and Mary Virginia Leslie.
Silko has described herself as 1/4 Laguna Pueblo (a Keres speaking tribe). She also identifies as Anglo American and Mexican American.
Silko grew up on the edge of pueblo society both literally – her family’s house was at the edge of the Laguna Pueblo reservation – and figuratively, as she was not permitted to participate in various tribal rituals or join any of the pueblo's religious societies.
While her parents worked, Silko and her two sisters were cared for by their grandmother, Lillie Stagner, and great-grandmother, Helen Romero, both story-tellers. Silko learned much of the traditional stories of the Laguna people from her grandmother, whom she called A'mooh, her aunt Susie, and her grandfather Hank during her early years. As a result, Silko has always identified most strongly with her Laguna ancestry, stating in an interview with Alan Velie, "I am of mixed-breed ancestry, but what I know is Laguna".
Silko's education included preschool through the fourth grade at Laguna BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs) School and followed by Albuquerque Indian School (a private day school), the latter requiring a day's drive by her father of 100 miles to avoid the boarding-school experience. Silko went on to receive a BA from the University of New Mexico in 1969; she briefly attended the University of New Mexico law school before pursuing her literary career full-time.
Early literary work
Silko garnered early literary acclaim for her short story "The Man to Send Rain Clouds," which was awarded a National Endowment for the Humanities Discovery Grant. The story continues to be included in anthologies.
During the years 1968 to 1974, Silko wrote and published many short stories and poems that were featured in Laguna Woman (1974).
Her other publications include: Laguna Woman: Poems (1974), Ceremony (1977), Storyteller (1981), and, with the poet James A. Wright, With the Delicacy and Strength of Lace: Letters Between Leslie Marmon Silko and James Wright (1985). Almanac of the Dead, a novel, appeared in 1991, and a collection of essays, Yellow Woman and a Beauty of the Spirit: Essays on Native American Life Today, was published in 1996.
Literary relevance and themes
Throughout her career as a writer and teacher, Silko remained grounded in the history-filled landscape of the Laguna Pueblo. Her experiences in the culture have inspired the preservation of traditions. As a well-known novelist and poet, Silko's career is characterized by the exposure of ingrained racism, white cultural imperialism, and a commitment to women's issues. Her novels include characters who attempt a simplified, yet uneasy, effort to balance Native American traditional survivalism with the violence of modern America. The clash of civilizations is a continuing theme in the modern Southwest.
Silko's literary contributions open up the prevailing Anglo-European guidelines of the American literary tradition to accommodate the often-unrepresented traditions, priorities, and ideas about identity which characterize many American Indian cultures. More specifically, her characterizations and plot lines derive from the bedrock of Silko's Laguna heritage and experience.
Main article: Ceremony (Silko novel)
Leslie Marmon Silko's novel Ceremony was first published by Penguin in March 1977 to much critical acclaim.
The novel tells the story of Tayo, a wounded veteran, returning from World War II. His heritage includes mixed Laguna-white ancestry. Following a short stint at a Los Angeles VA hospital he is returning to the poverty-stricken Laguna reservation, continues to suffer from "battle fatigue" (shell-shock), and is haunted by memories of his cousin Rocky who died in the conflict during the Bataan Death March of 1942. His initial escape from pain reveals his alcoholism, but his Old Grandma and mixed-blood Navajo medicine-man Betonie help him through native ceremonies to develop a greater understanding of the world and his place as a Laguna man.
Ceremony has been called a Grail fiction, wherein the hero overcomes a series of challenges to reach a specified goal; but this point of view has been criticized as Euro centric, since it involves a Native American backdrop, not one based on European-American myths. Silko's writing skill in the novel is deeply rooted in the use of stories that pass on traditions and understanding from the old to the new. Fellow Pueblo poet Paula Gunn Allen criticized the book on this account, saying that Silko was divulging secret tribal knowledge reserved for the tribe, not outsiders.
Ceremony gained immediate and long-term acceptance when returning Vietnam war veterans embraced the novel's theme of coping, healing and reconciliation between races, as well as those who share the trauma of military action. Largely on the strength of this work, critic Alan Velie named Silko one of his Four Native American Literary Masters, along with N. Scott Momaday, Gerald Vizenor and James Welch.
Ceremony remains a literary work featured in college and university syllabi, and one of the few individual works by any Native American author to have received book-length critical inquiry.
In 1981, Silko released Storyteller, a collection of poems and short stories that incorporated creative writing, mythology, and autobiography, which garnered favorable reception as it followed in much the same poetic form as the novel Ceremony.
Delicacy and Strength of Lace
In 1986, Delicacy and Strength of Lace was released. The book is a collected volume of correspondence between Silko and her friend James Wright whom she met following the publication of Ceremony. The work was edited by Wright's wife, Ann Wright, and released after Wright's death in March 1980.
Almanac of the Dead
Almanac of the Dead was published in 1991. This work took Silko ten years to complete and received mixed reviews. The vision of the book stretched over both American continents and included the Zapatista Army of National Liberation revolutionaries, based in the southern Mexican state of Chiapas as just a small part of the pantheon of characters. The theme of the novel, like Ceremony, focuses on the conflict between Anglo-Americans and Native Americans.
The work was heavily criticized for its attitude towards homosexuality as Silko pens many of the major villains in the novel as gay, and for an improper interpretation and incorporation of the Popol Vuh. Almanac of the Dead has not achieved the same mainstream success as its predecessor.
In June 1993, Silko published a limited run of Sacred Water under Flood Plain Press, a self-printing venture by Silko. Each copy of Sacred Water is handmade by Silko using her personal typewriter combining written text set next to poignant photographs taken by the author.
Sacred Water is composed of autobiographical prose, poetry and pueblo mythology focusing on the importance and centrality of water to life.
Silko issued a second printing of Sacred Water in 1994 in order to make the work more accessible to students and academics, although it was limited. This edition used printing methods suited for a greater production distribution.
Yellow Woman and a Beauty of the Spirit: Essays on Native American Life Today
Yellow Woman and a Beauty of the Spirit: Essays on Native American Life Today was published by Simon & Schuster in March 1997.
The work is a collection of short stories on various topics; including an autobiographical essay of her childhood at Laguna Pueblo and the racism she faced as a mixed blood person; stark criticism directed at President Bill Clinton regarding his immigration policies; and praise for the development of and lamentation for the loss of the Aztec and Maya codices, along with commentary on Pueblo mythology.
As one reviewer notes, Silko "encompass traditional storytelling, discussions of the power of words to the Pueblo, reminiscences on photography, frightening tales of the U.S. border patrol, historical explanations of the Mayan codices, and socio-political commentary on the relationship of the U.S. government to various nations, including the Pueblo".
In 1997, Silko ran a limited number of handmade books through Flood Plain Press. Like Sacred Water, Rain was again a combination of short autobiographical prose and poetry inset with her photographs.
The short volume focused on the importance of rain to personal and spiritual survival in the Southwest.
Gardens In The Dunes
Gardens in the Dunes was published in 1999. The work weaves together themes of feminism, slavery, conquest and botany, while following the story of a young girl named Indigo from the fictional "Sand Lizard People" in the Arizona Territory and her European travels as a summer companion to an affluent White woman named Hattie.
The story is set against the back drop of the enforcement of Indian boarding schools, the California Gold Rush and the rise of the Ghost Dance Religion.
The Turquoise Ledge: A Memoir
In 2010, Silko released The Turquoise Ledge: A Memoir. Written using distinctive prose and overall structure influenced by Native American storytelling traditions, the book is a broad-ranging exploration not only of her Laguna Pueblo, Cherokee, Mexican and European family history but also of the natural world, suffering, insight, environmentalism and the sacred. The desert southwest setting is prominent. Although non-fiction, the stylized presentation is reminiscent of creative fiction.
A longtime commentator on Native American affairs, Silko has published many non-fictional articles on Native American affairs and literature.
Silko's two most famous essays are outspoken attacks on fellow writers. In "An Old-Fashioned Indian Attack in Two Parts", first published in Geary Hobson's collection The Remembered Earth (1978), Silko accused Gary Snyder of profiting from Native American culture, particularly in his collection Turtle Island, the name and theme of which was taken from Pueblo mythology.
In 1986, Silko published a review entitled "Here's an Odd Artifact for the Fairy-Tale Shelf", on Anishinaabe writer Louise Erdrich's novel The Beet Queen. Silko claimed Erdrich had abandoned writing about the Native American struggle for sovereignty in exchange for writing "self-referential", postmodern fiction.
In 2012, the textbook, Rethinking Columbus, which includes an essay by her, was banned by the Tucson Unified School District following a statewide ban on Ethnic and Cultural Studies.
In 1965, she married Richard C. Chapman, and together, they had a son, Robert Chapman, before divorcing in 1969.
In 1971, she and John Silko were married. They had a son, Casimir Silko. This marriage also ended in divorce.
Ceremony. 1977. / reprint. San Val, Incorporated. 1986. ISBN 978-0-613-03297-1.
Almanac of the Dead. 1991. / reprint. Penguin. 1991. ISBN 978-0140173192.
Gardens in the Dunes. Simon and Schuster. 2000. ISBN 978-0-684-86332-0.
Poetry and short story collections
Laguna Women: Poems (1974)
Western Stories (1980)
Storyteller. Henry Holt & Company. 1981. ISBN 978-0-8050-0192-1.
Sacred Water: Narratives and Pictures. Flood Plain Press. 1994. ISBN 978-0-9636554-0-0.
Love poem and Slim Canyon (1996)
Oceanstory (2011) Published as a Kindle Single and available for digital download on Amazon.com
The Turquoise Ledge: A Memoir (2010)
Ellen L. Arnold, ed. (2000). Conversations with Leslie Marmon Silko. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-57806-301-7.
Yellow Woman and a Beauty of the Spirit: Essays on Native American Life Today. Simon and Schuster. 1997. ISBN 978-0-684-82707-0.
Melody Graulich, ed. (1993). Yellow woman. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-2005-6.
Delicacy And Strength of Lace Letters (1986)
"Indian Song: Survival", Chicago Review, Vol. 24, No. 4 (Spring, 1973), pp. 94–96*
Kin 9: Red Solar Moon
I pulse in order to purify
I seal the process of universal water
With the solar tone of intention
I am guided by the power of life force.
One must develop complete sensitivity to everything in one's environment; everything one experiences is mental data.*
*Star Traveler's 13 Moon Almanac of Synchronicity, Galactic Research Institute, Law of Time Press, Ashland, Oregon, 2017-2018.
The Sacred Tzolk'in
Muladhara Chakra (Seli Plasma)
Thursday, February 15, 2018
Yellow Galactic Star
Bull’s Horn Crescent -
Silver Cuticle Curve askew
Artful Venus attends you
Maiden Goddess –
Circuit of Beauty
Modeling Art -
Free Will found
Within the human Heart.
Jane Johnston Schoolcraft
Jane Johnston Schoolcraft, also known as Bamewawagezhikaquay, (January 31, 1800 – May 22, 1842) is the first known American Indian literary writer. She was of Ojibwa and Scots-Irish ancestry. Her Ojibwa name can also be written as O-bah-bahm-wawa-ge-zhe-go-qua (Obabaamwewe-giizhigokwe in modern spelling), meaning "Woman of the Sound [that the stars make] Rushing Through the Sky." She lived most of her life in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan.
Early life and education
Jane Johnston was born in Sault Ste. Marie in the upper peninsula of what is now the state of Michigan. Her mother, Ozhaguscodaywayquay, was the daughter of Waubojeeg, a prominent Ojibwa war chief and civil leader from what is now northern Wisconsin, and his wife. Her father John Johnston (1762–1828) was a fur trader who emigrated from Belfast, Ireland in 1790. The Johnstons are famous historically in the Sault Ste. Marie area, where the couple were prominent leaders in both the Euro-American and the Ojibwa communities. The young Jane learned the Ojibwe language and culture from her mother and her family, and she learned about written literature from her father and his large library.
Johnston wrote poetry and traditional Ojibwa stories, and she translated Ojibwa songs into English. She mostly wrote in English, but she wrote several poems in the Ojibwe language, as she lived her daily life in both Ojibwe and English. While she did not publish her work, she lived a literary life with her husband Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. They worked together closely on each of their writings. Her poetry was generally concerned with private life.
Jane Schoolcraft’s writings have attracted considerable interest from scholars and students, especially those concerned with American Indian literature and history. She has been recognized as "the first Native American literary writer, the first known Indian woman writer, the first known Indian poet, the first known poet to write poems in a Native American language and the first known American Indian to write out traditional Indian stories." Her role in the American Indian literary canon has been compared to that of Anne Bradstreet in the "broader American literary canon."
Marriage and family
In 1823 Jane married Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, a US Indian agent in the region, who became a founding figure of American cultural anthropology. He was appointed US Indian Agent to the Michigan Territory in 1822 and served in the Northwest until 1841.
In 1826-1827, Henry Schoolcraft produced a handwritten magazine called The Literary Voyager or Muzzeniegen, which included some of Jane’s writings. Although he had only single issues, each was distributed widely to residents in Sault Ste. Marie, then to his friends in Detroit, New York and other eastern cities. The Schoolcrafts' letters to each other during periods of separation often included poetry, also expressing how literature was part of their daily lives.
Henry Schoolcraft won fame for his later publications about American Indians, especially the Ojibwe people and their language (also known as Chippewa and Anishinaabemowin). His work was based on information and stories he learned from Jane and the Johnston family, and the access they arranged for other Ojibwe. In 1846 he was commissioned by the United States Congress for what became a six-volume study known as Indian Tribes of the United States. Henry Schoolcraft’s publications, including materials written by Jane Schoolcraft, were the main source for Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s The Song of Hiawatha (1855).
They had four children:
William Henry Schoolcraft (b. June 1824 - d. March 1827) died of croup at nearly three. Jane Schoolcraft wrote poems expressing her grief about his loss.
Stillborn daughter (November 1825);
Jane Susan Ann Schoolcraft (14 October 1827 - 25 November 1892, Richmond, Virginia, called Janee; and
John Johnston Schoolcraft (2 October 1829 – 24 April 1864), served in the Civil War but was wounded at the Battle of Gettysburg and disabled. He died at age 45 in Elmira, New York.
Jane and Henry Schoolcraft moved to Mackinac Island in 1833, after he had been given responsibility for a larger territory as Indian agent. Their home has since been demolished, but Henry Schoolcraft's office, also known as the Indian Dormitory, survives. It was used to house Indians who came to the island to acquire promised annuities and supplies.
The Schoolcrafts took Janee and John to a boarding school in Detroit when they were eleven and nine, respectively, which was hard for the younger boy, John Johnston. Schoolcraft wrote a poem in Ojibwe that expresses her feelings of loss after their separation.
In 1841, when Henry lost his patronage position as federal Indian agent due to a change in political administrations, the Schoolcrafts moved to New York City. He worked for the state in American Indian research. Jane Schoolcraft suffered from frequent illnesses; she died in 1842 while visiting a married sister in Canada. She was buried at St. John's Anglican Church in what is now Ancaster, Ontario.
Legacy and honors
1962 - Philip P. Mason published an edition of several issues of The Literary Voyager, with annotation and introduction. He acknowledged Henry Schoolcraft's debt to the John Johnston family for helping with his research and collecting materials. Based on her own works in The Literary Voyager, Jane Schoolcraft's writings gradually began to attract interest in the 1990s, as the work of minorities was more widely studied.
2007 - Robert Dale Parker published The Sound the Stars Make Rushing Through the Sky: The Writings of Jane Johnston Schoolcraft, a complete edition of her extensive writings, based mostly on previously unpublished manuscripts, and including a cultural history and biography. Schoolcraft’s writings are now beginning to attract considerable interest from scholars and students of multicultural and American Indian literature and history.
2008 - Jane Johnston Schoolcraft was inducted into the Michigan Women's Hall of Fame.
In popular culture
"Sweet Willy, My Boy", lyrics of the song were taken from a poem by Jane Johnston Schoolcraft mourning the death of her first son. From Dave Stanaway and Susan Askwith, CD: John Johnston: His Life and Times in the Fur Trade Era.*
Kin 8: Yellow Galactic Star
I harmonize in order to beautify
I seal the store of elegance
With the galactic tone of integrity
I am guided by the power of free will.
Within the single thought form called "universe" there exists an infinite potentiality of structures and mediums of expression.*
*Star Traveler's 13 Moon Almanac of Synchronicity, Galactic Research Institute, Law of Time Press, Ashland, Oregon, 2017-2018.
The Sacred Tzolk'in
Sahasrara Chakra (Dali Plasma)
Wednesday, February 14, 2018
Happy Valentine's Day to All!
Blue Resonant Hand
Picture the Earth
Blue Resonant Hand
Blue like Skies
Shiva – Ribbons – Seas – Eyes
Cerulean Planet sacred
Powered by the Sun
Pulsed by the Galaxy
Healing into One
The Human Race entire
Accomplishing en masse
Evolution whole - complete
To date our greatest Feat!
Shoni Schimmel (born May 4, 1992) is an American professional basketball player who last played for the New York Liberty of the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA). She was an All-American college player at the University of Louisville and a first round draft pick of the WNBA's Atlanta Dream.
Early life and high school
Schimmel, a 5'9" shooting guard, first received notoriety as a high school player in Oregon. Raised on the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation in Mission, Oregon, she was the subject of a documentary by filmmaker Jonathan Hock called Off the Rez, which chronicled her journey to earn an NCAA scholarship with her basketball ability. She transferred from Hermiston High School in eastern Oregon to the larger Franklin High School in Portland, Oregon to increase her chances of being recruited to a Division I school. After her senior year at Franklin, Schimmel was named a first team All-American by Parade magazine.
Schimmel was selected to the 2010 Women's Basketball Coaches Association High School Coaches' All-America Team. The top twenty high school players in the country are named as WBCA All-Americans, and eligible to play in the all-star game. She participated in the 2010 WBCA High School All-America Game, scoring six points.
Schimmel chose Louisville for college and became a four-year starter for the Cardinals. As a junior in 2012–13, Schimmel led the team to the championship game of the 2013 Tournament. In her senior season, Schimmel averaged 17.1 points per game to lead the team in scoring and was named an All-American by the USBWA and Associated Press.
For her career, she finished second on the Louisville career scoring list, finishing with 2,174 points.
Schimmel was selected to be a member of the team representing the USA at the 2013 World University Games held in Kazan, Russia. The team, coached by Sherri Coale, won the opening four games easily, scoring in triple digits in each game, and winning by 30 or more points in each case. After winning the quarterfinal game against Sweden, they faced Australia in the semifinal. The USA team opened up as much as a 17-point lead in the fourth quarter of the game but the Australian team fought back and took a one-point lead in the final minute. Crystal Bradford scored a basket with 14 seconds left in the game to secure a 79–78 victory. The gold medal opponent was Russia, but the USA team never trailed, and won 90–71 to win the gold medal and the World University games Championship. Schimmel averaged 4.6 points per game
On April 14, 2014, Schimmel was selected in the first round of the 2014 WNBA draft (eighth pick overall) by the Atlanta Dream. Despite coming off the bench, Schimmel had an impressive rookie season, averaging 8.3 ppg and was voted a WNBA All-Star starter, become just the third reserve in league history to achieve that. In her first career game, Schimmel scored 7 points to go with a franchise-record 11 assists against the San Antonio Stars. In a regular season game win against the Phoenix Mercury, Schimmel scored a career-high 24 points, where she scored 20 of them in the second quarter, becoming one of six players in WNBA history to score 20 or more points in a quarter. She also earned recognition as the 2014 WNBA All-Star Game Most Valuable Player on July 19, 2014 in Phoenix, Arizona as Schimmel out battled Skylar Diggins by scoring a then WNBA All-Star Game record, 29 points (which would be broken by Maya Moore the following year). In 2014, her jersey was the league's best seller. Some of the other WNBA franchises have held events honoring Native Americans when the Dream is the visiting team. With Schimmel's productivity on the court along with a supporting cast of Sancho Lyttle, all-star center Érika de Souza and superstar small forward Angel McCoughtry, the Atlanta Dream were the number one seed in the Eastern Conference, but were upset in the first round of the playoffs, losing 2-1 to the fourth-seeded Chicago Sky.
In the 2015 season, Schimmel averaged 7.6 ppg despite starting in more games than she did in her rookie season. However, she was voted once again as a WNBA all-star starter, but the Dream never made it to the playoffs. Schimmel led the team in assists throughout the whole season.
Right before the 2016 season, Schimmel was traded to the New York Liberty in exchange for a 2017 second round draft pick. Despite being a two-time all-star, Schimmel would have a significantly reduced role on the team while averaging career lows in minutes per game (4.5 mpg) and points per game (2.1 ppg). She was also out of shape coming into training camp which ultimately led to the amount of playing time she would get. Midway through the season, Schimmel suffered a concussion that would cause her to miss the rest of the season, including the playoffs.
In May 2017, it was announced that Schimmel would be sitting out the 2017 WNBA season due to personal issues.
Schimmel has a younger sister, Jude, who was also a teammate of hers at Louisville. Shae, Mick, Milan, Saint, and Sun are the children of Ceci and Rick Schimmel.*
Kin 7: Blue Resonant Hand
I channel in order to know
I seal the store of accomplishment
With the resonant tone of attunement
I am guided by the power of self-generation.
The Akashic field is the mathematically structured medium that holds the holograms or holographic information of all and everything that exists.*
The Sacred Tzolk'in
Anahata Chakra (Silio Plasma)
Tuesday, February 13, 2018
White Rhythmic World-Bridger
On the Loom Mayá*
Grandmother Spider weaves –
Replicating Blueprints of
Birth – Death – Rebirth
Hallowed Patterns intricate
Then descend to Earth
Holding Codes of Origin
Holding Codes of Destiny
Soul spins a Body visible
Held by Threads invisible
By Gravitation bound
To Life’s Sacred Ground.
*Tzolk’in: Sacred Mayan Calendar -- Pieces of the Sun/Count of Days, the Tzolk’in is a sacred radio-genetic resonant transformer reflecting the creation codes of the Cosmos in 260 units containing all possible permutations of 13 Tones and 20 Hieroglyphs.
Sacagawea (right) with Lewis and Clark at the Three Forks, mural at Montana House of Representatives.
Sacagawea (/ˌsækədʒəˈwiːə/, Sakakawea or Sacajawea May 1788 – December 20, 1812) was a Lemhi Shoshone woman who is known for her help to the Lewis and Clark Expedition in achieving their chartered mission objectives by exploring the Louisiana Territory.
Sacagawea traveled with the expedition thousands of miles from North Dakota to the Pacific Ocean. She helped establish cultural contacts with Native American populations in addition to her contributions to natural history.
Sacagawea is known to be an important part of Lewis and Clark expedition, which is well known in the American public imagination. The National American Woman Suffrage Association of the early twentieth century adopted her as a symbol of women's worth and independence, erecting several statues and plaques in her memory, and doing much to spread the story of her accomplishments.
Posthumously, in 1977, she was inducted into the National Cowgirl Hall of Fame, in Fort Worth, Texas. In 2001, she was given the title of Honorary Sergeant, Regular Army, by then-president Bill Clinton.
Reliable historical information about Sacagawea is very limited. She was born into an Agaidika (Salmon Eater) of Lemhi Shoshone tribe between Kenney Creek and Agency Creek near Salmon, Idaho in Lemhi County. In 1800, when she was approximately 12 years old, she and several other girls were kidnapped by a group of Hidatsa in a battle that resulted in the deaths of several Shoshone: four men, four women, and several boys. She was kept captive at a Hidatsa village near present-day Washburn, North Dakota.
At approximately age 13, Sacagawea was sold into a non-consensual "marriage" to Toussaint Charbonneau, a Quebecois trapper living in the village. He had also bought another young Shoshone, known as Otter Woman, as his "wife." Charbonneau was reported to have purchased both girls to be his "wives" from the Hidatsa, or to have won Sacagawea while gambling.
The Lewis and Clark expedition
Sacagawea was pregnant with her first child when the Corps of Discovery arrived near the Hidatsa villages to spend the winter of 1804–05. Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark built Fort Mandan. They interviewed several trappers who might be able to interpret or guide the expedition up the Missouri River in the springtime. They agreed to hire Charbonneau as an interpreter because they discovered his wife spoke Shoshone, and they knew they would need the help of Shoshone tribes at the headwaters of the Missouri.
Clark recorded in his journal on November 4, 1804:
a french man by Name Chabonah, who Speaks the Big Belley language visit us, he wished to hire & informed us his 2 Squars (squaws) were Snake Indians, we engau (engaged) him to go on with us and take one of his wives to interpret the Snake language ...
Charbonneau and Sacagawea moved into the expedition's fort a week later. Clark nicknamed her "Janey." Lewis recorded the birth of Jean Baptiste Charbonneau on February 11, 1805, noting that another of the party's interpreters administered crushed rattlesnake rattles to speed the delivery. Clark and other European Americans nicknamed the boy "Little Pomp" or "Pompy."
In April, the expedition left Fort Mandan and headed up the Missouri River in pirogues. They had to be poled against the current and sometimes pulled from the riverbanks. On May 14, 1805, Sacagawea rescued items that had jumped out of a capsized boat, including the journals and records of Lewis and Clark. The corps commanders, who praised her quick action, named the Sacagawea River in her honor on May 20, 1805. By August 1805, the corps had located a Shoshone tribe and was attempting to trade for horses to cross the Rocky Mountains. They used Sacagawea to interpret and discovered that the tribe's chief, Cameahwait, was her brother.
Lewis recorded their reunion in his journal:
Shortly after Capt. Clark arrived with the Interpreter Charbono, and the Indian woman, who proved to be a sister of the Chief Cameahwait. The meeting of those people was really affecting, particularly between Sah cah-gar-we-ah and an Indian woman, who had been taken prisoner at the same time with her, and who had afterwards escaped from the Minnetares and rejoined her nation.
And Clark in his:
...The Intertrepeter & Squar who were before me at Some distance danced for the joyful Sight, and She made signs to me that they were her nation...
The Shoshone agreed to barter horses to the group, and to provide guides to lead them over the cold and barren Rocky Mountains. The trip was so hard that they were reduced to eating tallow candles to survive. When they descended into the more temperate regions on the other side, Sacagawea helped to find and cook camas roots to help them regain their strength.
As the expedition approached the mouth of the Columbia River on the Pacific Coast, Sacagawea gave up her beaded belt to enable the captains to trade for a fur robe they wished to give to President Thomas Jefferson.
Clark's journal entry for November 20, 1805 reads:
one of the Indians had on a roab made of 2 Sea Otter Skins the fur of them were more butifull than any fur I had ever Seen both Capt. Lewis & my Self endeavored to purchase the roab with different articles at length we precured it for a belt of blue beeds which the Squar—wife of our interpreter Shabono wore around her waste....
When the corps reached the Pacific Ocean, all members of the expedition—including Sacagawea and Clark's black manservant York— voted on November 24 on the location for building their winter fort. In January, when a whale's carcass washed up onto the beach south of Fort Clatsop, Sacagawea insisted on her right to go see this "monstrous fish."
On the return trip, they approached the Rocky Mountains in July 1806. On July 6, Clark recorded "The Indian woman informed me that she had been in this plain frequently and knew it well... She said we would discover a gap in the mountains in our direction..." which is now Gibbons Pass. A week later, on July 13, Sacagawea advised Clark to cross into the Yellowstone River basin at what is now known as Bozeman Pass. Later, this was chosen as the optimal route for the Northern Pacific Railway to cross the continental divide.
While Sacagawea has been depicted as a guide for the expedition, she is recorded as providing direction in only a few instances. Her work as an interpreter certainly helped the party to negotiate with the Shoshone, however, her greatest value to the mission may have been simply her presence during the arduous journey, which demonstrated the peaceful intent of the expedition. While traveling through what is now Franklin County, Washington, Clark noted, "The Indian woman confirmed those people of our friendly intentions, as no woman ever accompanies a war party of Indians in this quarter," and, "the wife of Shabono our interpeter we find reconsiles all the Indians, as to our friendly intentions a woman with a party of men is a token of peace."
As he traveled downriver from Fort Mandan at the end of the journey, Clark wrote to Charbonneau:
You have been a long time with me and conducted your Self in Such a manner as to gain my friendship, your woman who accompanied you that long dangerous and fatigueing rout to the Pacific Ocian and back diserved a greater reward for her attention and services on that rout than we had in our power to give her at the Mandans. As to your little Son (my boy Pomp) you well know my fondness of him and my anxiety to take him and raise him as my own child ...If you are desposed to accept either of my offers to you and will bring down you Son your famn [femme, woman] Janey had best come along with you to take care of the boy untill I get him ...Wishing you and your family great success & with anxious expectations of seeing my little danceing boy Baptiest I shall remain your Friend, William Clark. [sic]
Later life and death
After the expedition, Charbonneau and Sacagawea spent three years among the Hidatsa before accepting William Clark's invitation to settle in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1809. They entrusted Jean-Baptiste's education to Clark, who enrolled the young man in the Saint Louis Academy boarding school. Sacagawea gave birth to a daughter, Lizette, sometime after 1810.
According to Bonnie "Spirit Wind-Walker" Butterfield, historical documents suggest Sacagawea died in 1812 of an unknown sickness:
An 1811 journal entry made by Henry Brackenridge, a fur dealer at Fort Manuel Lisa Trading Post on the Missouri River, stated that, both, Sacagawea and Charbonneau were living at the fort. He recorded that Sacagawea "...had become sickly and longed to revisit her native country." The following year, John Luttig, a clerk at Fort Manuel Lisa, recorded in his journal on December 20, 1812, that: "...the wife of Charbonneau, a Snake Squaw [the common term used to denote Shoshone Indians], died of putrid fever." He went on to say that she was "aged about 25 years. She left a fine infant girl". Documents held by Clark show that her son Baptiste already had been entrusted by Charbonneau into Clark's care for a boarding school education, at Clark's insistence (Jackson, 1962).
A few months later, 15 men were killed in an Indian attack on Fort Lisa, then located at the mouth of the Bighorn River. John Luttig and Sacagawea's young daughter were among the survivors. Toussaint Charbonneau was mistakenly thought to have been killed, at this time, but he apparently lived to at least age 76. He had signed over formal custody of his son to William Clark in 1813.
As further proof that Sacagawea died in 1812, Butterfield writes:
An adoption document made in the Orphans Court Records in St. Louis, Missouri, states, 'On August 11, 1813, William Clark became the guardian of 'Tousant Charbonneau, a boy about ten years, and Lizette Charbonneau, a girl about one year old.' For a Missouri State Court at the time, to designate a child as orphaned and to allow an adoption, both parents had to be confirmed dead in court papers.
The last recorded document citing Sacagawea's existence appears in William Clark's original notes written between 1825–1826. He lists the names of each of the expedition members and their last known whereabouts. For Sacagawea he writes: "Se car ja we au— Dead." (Jackson, 1962)."
Some American Indian oral traditions relate that rather than dying in 1812, Sacagawea left her husband Charbonneau, crossed the Great Plains, and married into a Comanche tribe. She was said to have returned to the Shoshone in Wyoming in 1860, where she died in 1884.
The question of Sacagawea's final resting place caught the attention of national suffragists seeking voting rights for women, according to author Raymond Wilson. Wilson argues that Sacagawea became a role model whom suffragettes pointed to "with pride." Wilson goes on to note:
Interest in Sacajawea peaked and controversy intensified when Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard, professor of political economy at the University of Wyoming in Laramie and an active supporter of the Nineteenth Amendment, campaigned for federal legislation to erect an edifice honoring Sacajawea's death in 1884.
In 1925, Dr. Charles Eastman, a Dakota Sioux physician, was hired by the Bureau of Indian Affairs to locate Sacagawea's remains. Eastman visited many different Native American tribes, to interview elderly individuals who might have known or heard of Sacagawea, and learned of a Shoshone woman at the Wind River Reservation with the Comanche name Porivo (chief woman). Some of the people he interviewed said that she spoke of a long journey wherein she had helped white men, and that she had a silver Jefferson peace medal of the type carried by the Lewis and Clark Expedition. He found a Comanche woman called Tacutine who said that Porivo was her grandmother. She had married into a Comanche tribe and had a number of children, including Tacutine's father Ticannaf. Porivo left the tribe after her husband Jerk-Meat was killed.
According to these narratives, Porivo lived for some time at Fort Bridger in Wyoming with her sons Bazil and Baptiste, who each knew several languages, including English and French. Eventually, she found her way back to the Lemhi Shoshone at the Wind River Indian Reservation, where she was recorded as "Bazil's mother". This woman died on April 9, 1884, and a Reverend John Roberts officiated at her funeral.
It was Eastman's conclusion that Porivo was Sacagawea. In 1963, a monument to "Sacajawea of the Shoshonis" was erected at Fort Washakie on the Wind River reservation near Lander, Wyoming, on the basis of this claim.
The belief that Sacagawea lived to old age and died in Wyoming was widely disseminated in the United States in the biography Sacajawea (1933) by University of Wyoming professor and historian Grace Raymond Hebard. Critics have called into question Hebard's 30 years of research, which led to the biography of the Shoshone woman. Hebard presents a stout-hearted woman in her portrayal of Sacajawea that is "undeniably long on romance and short on hard evidence, suffering from a sentimentalization of Indian culture".
Sacagawea gave birth to a daughter, Lizette Charbonneau, sometime after 1810. However, there is no later record of Lizette among Clark's papers. It is believed that she died in childhood.
Sacagawea's son Jean Baptiste Charbonneau continued a restless and adventurous life. He carried lifelong celebrity status as the infant who went with the explorers to the Pacific Ocean and back. When he was 18, he was befriended by a German Prince, Duke Paul Wilhelm of Württemberg, who took him to Europe. There, Jean-Baptiste spent six years living among royalty, while learning four languages and fathering a child in Germany named Anton Fries.
After his infant son died, Jean-Baptiste came back from Europe in 1829 to live the life of a Western frontiersman. He became a gold miner, hotel clerk, and in 1846, led a group of Mormons to California. While in California he became a magistrate for the Mission San Luis Rey. He disliked the way Indians were treated in the Missions and left to become a hotel clerk in Auburn, California, once the center of gold rush activity.
After working six years in Auburn, the restless son of Sacagawea left in search of riches in the gold mines of Montana. He was 61 years old, and the trip was too much for him. He became ill with pneumonia and died in a remote area near Danner, Oregon, on May 16, 1866.
Spelling of name
A long-running controversy has surrounded the correct spelling, pronunciation, and etymology of the woman's name, however, linguists working on Hidatsa since the 1870s have always considered the name's Hidatsa etymology essentially indisputable. The name is a compound of two common Hidatsa nouns, cagáàga [tsakáàka] 'bird' and míà [míà] 'woman'. The compound is written as Cagáàgawia 'Bird Woman' in modern Hidatsa orthography, and pronounced [tsakáàkawia] (/m/ is pronounced [w] between vowels in Hidatsa). The double /aa/ in the name indicates a long vowel and the diacritics a falling pitch pattern. Hidatsa is a pitch-accent language that does not have stress, therefore, in the Hidatsa pronunciation all syllables in [tsaɡáàɡawia] are pronounced with roughly the same relative emphasis, however, most English speakers perceive the accented syllable (the long /aa/) as stressed. In faithful rendering of the name Cagáàgawia to other languages, it is advisable to emphasize the second, long syllable, not the last, as is common in English.
The name Sacajawea or Sacajewea /ˌsækədʒəˈwiːə/, in contrast to the Hidatsa etymology, is said to be derived from Shoshone Saca-tzaw-meah, meaning "boat puller" or "boat launcher". It is the preferred spelling used by the Lemhi Shoshone people, some of whom claim that her Hidatsa captors merely reinterpreted her existing Shoshone name in their own language, and pronounced it in their own dialect – they heard a name that approximated "tsakaka" and "wia", and interpreted it as "bird woman", substituting the hard "g/k" pronunciation for the softer "tz/j" sound that did not exist in the Hidatsa language.
The use of this spelling almost certainly originated from the use of the "j" spelling by Nicholas Biddle, who annotated the Lewis and Clark Expedition's journals for publication in 1814. This use became more widespread with the publication of the 1902 novel The Conquest: The True Story of Lewis and Clark, written by Eva Emery Dye. It is likely Dye used Biddle's secondary source for the spelling, and her highly popular book made it ubiquitous throughout the United States (previously most non-scholars had never even heard of Sacagawea).
Rozina George, great-great-great-great-granddaughter of Cameahwait, says the Agaidika tribe of Lemhi Shoshone do not recognize the spelling or pronunciation Sacagawea, and schools and other memorials erected in the area surrounding her birthplace use the spelling Sacajawea.
The Lemhi Shoshone call her Sacajawea. It is derived from the Shoshone word for her name, Saca tzah we yaa. In his Cash Book, William Clark spells Sacajawea with a “J”. Also, William Clark and Private George Shannon explained to Nicholas Biddle (Published the first Lewis and Clark Journals in 1814) about the pronunciation of her name and how the tz sounds more like a “j”. What better authority on the pronunciation of her name than Clark and Shannon who traveled with her and constantly heard the pronunciation of her name? We do not believe it is a Minnetaree (Hidatsa) word for her name. Sacajawea was a Lemhi Shoshone not a Hidatsa.
Idaho native John Rees explored the "boat launcher" etymology in a long letter to the United States Commissioner of Indian Affairs written in the 1920's; it was republished in 1970 by the Lemhi County Historical Society as a pamphlet entitled "Madame Charbonneau" and contains many of the arguments in favor of the Shoshone derivation of the name.
The spelling Sacajawea, although widely taught until the late twentieth century, is generally considered incorrect in modern academia. Linguistics professor Dr. Sven Liljeblad from the Idaho State University in Pocatello has concluded that "it is unlikely that Sacajawea is a Shoshoni word.... The term for 'boat' in Shoshoni is saiki, but the rest of the alleged compound would be incomprehensible to a native speaker of Shoshoni." The spelling has subsided from general use, although the corresponding "soft j" pronunciation persists in American culture.
In popular culture
The artwork The Dinner Party by feminist artist Judy Chicago features a place setting for Sacagawea in Wing Three of the installation, titled American Revolution to the Women's Revolution.
Some fictional accounts speculate that Sacagawea was romantically involved with Lewis or Clark during their expedition, however, while the journals show that she was friendly with Clark and would often do favors for him, the idea of a romantic liaison was created by novelists who wrote about the expedition much later. This fiction was perpetuated in the Western film The Far Horizons (1955).
In her novel Sacajawea (1984), Anna Lee Waldo explored the story of Sacajawea's returning to Wyoming 50 years after her departure. The author was well aware of the historical research supporting an 1812 death, but she chose to explore the oral tradition.
Film and television
Several movies, both documentaries and fiction, have been made about, or featuring, Sacagawea.
The Far Horizons (1955) – played by Donna Reed
Lewis & Clark: Great Journey West (2002) – played by Alex Rice
Jefferson's West (2003) – played by Cedar Henry
Journey of Sacagawea (2004)
Bill and Meriwether's Excellent Adventure (2006) – played by Crystal Lysne
Night at the Museum (2006) – played by Mizuo Peck
The Spirit of Sacajawea (2007)
Night at the Museum 2: Battle of the Smithsonian (2009) – played by Mizuo Peck
Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb (2014) – played by Mizuo Peck
In 1967, the actress Victoria Vetri, under the name Angela Dorian, played Sacajawea in the episode "The Girl Who Walked the West" of the syndicated television series, Death Valley Days.
Two early twentieth-century novels shaped much of the public perception of Sacagawea. The Conquest: The True Story of Lewis and Clark (1902), was written by American suffragist Eva Emery Dye and published in anticipation of the expedition's centennial. The National American Woman Suffrage Association embraced her as a female hero, and numerous stories and essays about her appeared in ladies' journals. A few decades later, Grace Raymond Hebard published Sacajawea: Guide and Interpreter of Lewis and Clark (1933) to even greater success.
Sacagawea has since become a popular figure in historical and young adult novels, including Anna Lee Waldo's novel Sacajawea.
In Philip Glass's "Piano Concerto No. 2 after Lewis & Clark", the second movement is entitled "Sacagawea".
Sacagawea is mentioned in the Schoolhouse Rock song "Elbow Room" as the guide for Lewis and Clark.
Sacagewea is referenced in Stevie Wonder's song "Black Man", from the album Songs in the Key of Life (1976).
Eric Tingstad & Nancy Rumbel's 1988 album Legends includes a piece entitled Sacajawea.
In 2010, Italian pianist and composer Alessandra Celletti released Sketches of Sacagawea, a limited-edition tribute box set with an album and accompanying book, on Al-Kemi Lab.
In the first episode of the history podcast, The Broadsides, Sacagawea and her accomplishments during the Lewis and Clark Expedition are discussed.
In 2000, the United States Mint issued the Sacagawea dollar coin in her honor, depicting Sacagawea and her son, Jean Baptiste Charbonneau. Because no contemporary image of Sacagawea exists, the face on the coin was modeled on a modern Shoshone-Bannock woman named Randy'L He-dow Teton. The portrait design is unusual, as the copyrights have been assigned to and are owned by the US Mint. Therefore the portrait is not in the public domain, as most US coin designs are.
Geography and parks
Lake Sakakawea in North Dakota
Sacajawea Memorial Area, at Lemhi Pass, a National Historic Landmark managed by the National Forest Service and located on the boundary of Montana and Idaho, where visitors can hike the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail. The Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) created the memorial area in 1932 to honor Sacajawea for her role in the success of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
Mount Sacagawea, Fremont County, Wyoming, and the associated Sacagawea Glacier
The Sacajawea Interpretive, Cultural, and Educational Center is a 71-acre (290,000 m2) park located in Salmon, Idaho, by the rivers and mountains of Sacajawea’s homeland. It is "owned and operated by the City of Salmon, in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management, Idaho Governor's Lewis & Clark Trail Committee, Salmon-Challis National Forest, Idaho Department of Fish & Game, and numerous non-profit and volunteer organizations".
Sacagawea Heritage Trail, a bike trail in the Tri-Cities, Washington
Sacajawea Patera, a caldera on the planet Venus
Sacajawea Peak, Wallowa County, Oregon
Sacagawea Peak, located in Sacagawea Park, in Gallatin County, Montana
Sacagawea Peak, Custer County, Idaho
Sacagawea River in Montana
Sacajawea State Park in Pasco, Washington
Astoria, Oregon, at the Clatsop National Memorial, Netul Landing in Lewis and Clark National Historical Park: a life-size bronze statue of Sacagawea and Jean-Baptiste by Jim Demetro, named Sacagawea and Baby, is located outside the visitor center
Bismarck, North Dakota, by Leonard Crunelle (1910), with baby Pomp, on the grounds of the North Dakota State Capitol, in 2003, a replica was given to the National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol Visitor Center
Boise, Idaho: installed in front of the Idaho History Museum in July 2003
Charlottesville, Virginia, by Charles Keck (1919): a statue of Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, and Sacagawea
Cheney, Washington, by Harold Balazs (1960): a statue of Sacagawea is displayed in the rose garden in front of the President’s House at Eastern Washington University
Cody, Wyoming, by Harry Jackson (1980): painted bronze, 114 inches, the statue is located in the Greever Cashman Garden at the Buffalo Bill Historical Center
Cody, Wyoming, by Richard V. Greeves (2005): Bronze, 72 inches, the sculpture is in the Robbie Powwow Garden at the Buffalo Bill Historical Center
Fort Benton, Montana, by Robert Scriver: a sculpture of Sacagawea and her baby, and Captains Lewis and Clark, in the riverside sculpture park
Fort Worth, Texas, by Glenna Goodacre (2001): Sacajawea statue outside the National Cowgirl Hall of Fame
Godfrey, Illinois, by Glenna Goodacre: at Lewis and Clark Community College; by the same artist who designed the image on the Sacagawea dollar
Great Falls, Montana, by Robert Scriver: bronze 3/4 scale statue of Sacagawea, her baby Jean-Baptise, Lewis, Clark, and the Newfoundland dog Seaman, at the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Interpretive Center in Great Falls, Montana
Kansas City, Missouri, by Eugene L. Daub (2000): Corps of Discovery Monument including life-size figures of Sacagawea and Jean-Baptiste, York, and Seaman on the bluff at Clark's Point overlook (Case Park, Quality Hill)
Lander, Wyoming: in local cemetery, fourteen miles West on US 287, and then two miles West (after a turn); turnoff about three miles South of Fort Washakie; there is a tall statue of Sacagawea (six feet) with tombstones downhill of her, husband, and two children; there also is a monument on site
Lewiston, Idaho: multiple statues, including one along the main approach to the city
Longview, Washington, a statue of Sacagawea and Jean-Baptiste was placed in Lake Sacajawea Park near the Hemlock St. footbridge in 2005
Mobridge, South Dakota: The Sacagawea Monument is an obelisk erected at the supposed site of her death, which honors Sacagawea as a member of the Shoshone tribe and for her contribution to the Corps of Discovery expedition; the associated marker "dates her death as December 20, 1812 and states that her body must be buried somewhere near the site of old Fort Manuel located 30 miles north of the marker"
Portland, Oregon, by Alice Cooper (1905): Sacajawea and Jean-Baptiste was unveiled July 6, 1905 and moved to Washington Park, April 6, 1906
Portland, Oregon, by Glenna Goodacre: at Lewis & Clark College, permanently installed on September 5, 2004
Richland, Washington, by Tom McClelland (2008)
St. Louis, Missouri, by Harry Weber (2002): a statue of Sacagawea with her baby in a cradle board is included in the diorama of the Lewis & Clark expedition that is on display in the lobby of the St. Louis Drury Plaza Hotel, located in the historical International Fur Exchange building
Three Forks, Montana, in Sacajawea Park, by Mary Michael: statue honoring Sacagawea, entitled Coming Home, is built in the area where Sacajawea was abducted as a young girl and taken to Mandan lands
Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming: According to oral tradition, Sacagawea left her husband Toussaint Charbonneau an fled to Wyoming in the 1860s; her alleged burial site is located in the reservation's cemetery, with a gravestone inscription dating her death as April 9, 1884, however, oral tradition also indicates a woman named Porivo (recorded as “Bazil’s mother”) occupies that grave.*
Kin 6: White Rhythmic World-Bridger
I organize in order to equalize
I seal the store of death
With the rhythmic tone of equality
I am guided by my own power doubled.
When a system reaches its limits, a new evolutionary state is triggered.*
The Sacred Tzolk'in
Manipura Chakra (Limi Plasma)