Friday, April 8, 2016
White Rhythmic Dog/ White Planetary Wind - Planetary Dog Moon of Manifestation, Day 5
Artist Feather Radha’s depiction of Jumano Indians hunting bison.
The Jumano were known for their tattooed or painted bodies.
The Jumano people were a prominent indigenous tribe or several tribes, who inhabited a large area of western Texas, adjacent New Mexico, and northern Mexico, especially near the La Junta de los Rios region with its large settled Indian population. Spanish explorers first recorded encounters with the Jumano in 1581; later expeditions noted them in a broad area of the Southwest and the Great Plains. The last historic reference was in a nineteenth-century oral history but their population had declined by the early eighteenth century.
Scholars have generally argued that the Jumano disappeared as a distinct people by 1750 due to infectious disease, the slave trade, and warfare, with remnants absorbed by the Apache or Comanche. But as of 2008, self-identified Apache-Jumano (Jumano Ndé - “Red Mud Painted People”) in southwest Texas, an amalgam of mostly Jumano, but also Comanche and Apachean groups (with close ties to Mescalero Apache and Lipan Apache) currently have 300 members with up to 3000 more claimed. They hope to be recognized as an official tribe.
Scholars estimate that in 1580, the population of Indians, partially or wholly Jumano, living along the Rio Grande and the Pecos River was somewhere between 20,000 and 30,000. There may have been other people who would have identified as part of the Jumano people, or at least closely associated with them, living further east in Texas at this time. Other groups closely associated with the Jumano and who at times have been identified as Jumano were the Julimes, Tobosos and Conchos living progressively further south along the Conchos River from its intersection with the Rio Grande.
The Jumano of the late 17th century sought an alliance with the Spanish. They were under pressure from the Lipan Apache and Mescalero Apache advancing from the north, and drought had adversely affected the agricultural yields and the buffalo herds in their territory. The Jumano asked for Christian missions to be established in their territory; they tried to mediate between the Spanish and other tribes. The Spanish visited them in the homeland on the Concho River in 1629, 1650, and 1654. In 1654 the Spanish of the Diego de Guadalajara expedition aided the Jumano in a battle against the Cuitaos (probably the Wichita) and gained a rich harvest of bison skins. In the 1680s, the Jumano chief Juan Sabeata was prominent in forging trade and religious ties with the Spanish. In the latter part of the 17th century, the colonists seem to have lost interest in the Jumano, transferring their priorities to the Caddo of east Texas. The Caddo were more numerous and of greater concern to the Spanish because the French were trying to establish a trading foothold among them.
In the early 18th century, the Jumano tried to create an alliance with their historic enemies the Apache. By 1729, the Spanish were referring to the two tribes as the Apache Jumanos. By 1750, the Jumano had nearly disappeared from the historic record as a distinct people; they appeared to have been absorbed by bands of Lipan and Mescalero Apache, Caddo, and Wichita; died of infectious diseases, or become de-tribalized when living at Spanish missions in Central Texas. If Flores' speculation is correct, they may have migrated north to the Black Hills region and emerged on the southern Plains about 1800 as the Kiowa.
European-American scholars have long considered the Jumano extinct as a people. In the 21st century some families in Texas have identified as Apache-Jumano. As of 2013, they have registered 300 members in the United States and seek to be recognized as a tribe. The tribal chieftain, Gabriel Carrasco, said he believed there could be another 3,000 people who would qualify.
Kin 110: White Rhythmic Dog
I organize in order to love
I seal the process of heart
With the rhythmic tone of equality
I am guided by my own power doubled
I am a galactic activation portal
The universal time/space is constructed through your mind.*
*Star Traveler's 13 Moon Almanac of Synchronicity, Galactic Research Institute, Law of Time Press, Ashland, Oregon, 2015-2016.
The Sacred Tzolk'in
Visshudha Chakra (Alpha Plasma)